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چکیده انگلیسی Abstract:
The paper aims at revisiting the law of countermeasures, through the case study of the economic measures targeting Iran agreed by the EU Member States in early 2012. This case concerns a very specific situation: that of measures enacted motu proprio in the framework of a regional organization against a country which has already been targeted by sanctions adopted by the UN Security Council. The unprecedented extent of these new EU measures raises various issues regarding their lawfulness under international law. Beginning with a brief overview of the factual background of the Iranian nuclear controversy, our assessment of the measures’ lawfulness consists of a 2-fold primary process; first, it is necessary to characterize these measures, in order to determine the applicable legal framework. Then, depending upon the conclusion reached as to the legal nature of the measures, their lawfulness is to be assessed with respect to the relevant rules governing their use. As regards the first step, the measures under consideration may prima facie qualify either as measures of retorsion, as sanctions (whether emanating from the UN Security Council or ‘autonomous’), or as countermeasures. The paper examines what legal category adequately describes the EU measures, and concludes with reasonable certainty that they display the general characteristics of countermeasures. This finding entails the applicability of the law of State responsibility (as well as the law of responsibility of international organization), which is relevant to assess in the case considered the lawfulness of the measures, both from a procedural and a substantive perspective.
Key words: Iranian necular program, European Union measures, Self-help, Law of internatioan responsibility, Sanctions, Countermeasurs
Islamic Azad University
M.A. Dissertation IN International Law
Study of European Union Restrictive Measures against Iran: Applicable Law on the Countermeasures Perspective
Dr. Ali Amiri
Dr. Alireza Jahangiri
1 ‘Restrictive measures’ is the official term used by the EU institutions to designate ‘sanctions’. See: Dupont, P., Countermeasures and Collective Security: The Case of the EU Sanctions Against Iran, Journal of Conflict & Security Law, Vol. 17, No. 3, p.302.
2 See eg: ‘EU discussing plan to start Iran oil ban on July 1’ Reuters (17 January 2012); ‘EU states agree in principle to sanction Iran central bank’ Reuters (18 January 2012).
3 EU Council Conclusions on Iran (3142th Foreign Affairs Council meeting, Brussels, 23 January 2012) para 2.
4 See EU Council, Press release 5457/12 of 23 January 2012, ‘Iran: New EU sanctions target sources of finance for nuclear programme’.
5 Draft Articles on State Responsibility with commentaries, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Vol. 2, Part Two, 2001, pp. 128-137.
6 Draft Articles on Internatioanal Oranization Responsibility with commentaries, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Vol. 2, Part Two, 2011, pp. 149-156.
7 See inter elia: Crawford, J., The International law Commissions Articles on State Responsibility, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
8 Calamita, N., Sanctions,